Difference Between On-Campus Education and Online Education
1.On-the-job Training and Lectures
The two most frequently used kinds of training are on-the-job training and lectures, although little research exists as to the effectiveness of either. It is usually impossible to teach someone everything she needs to know at a location away from the workplace. Thus on-the-job training often supplements other kinds of training, e.g., classroom or off-site training; but on-the-job training is frequently the only form of training. It is usually informal, which means, unfortunately, that the trainer does not concentrate on the training as much as she should, and the trainer may not have a well-articulated picture of what the novice needs to learn.
On-the-job training is not successful when used to avoid developing a training program, though it can be an effective part of a well-coordinated training program.
Lectures are used because of their low cost and their capacity to reach many people. Lectures, which use one-way communication as opposed to interactive learning techniques, are much criticized as a training device.
2. Programmed Instruction (PI)
These devices systematically present information to the learner and elicit a response; they use reinforcement principles to promote appropriate responses. When PI was originally developed in the 1950s, it was thought to be useful only for basic subjects. Today the method is used for skills as diverse as air traffic control, blueprint reading, and the analysis of tax returns.
3. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)
With CAI, students can learn at their own pace, as with PI. Because the student interacts with the computer, it is believed by many to be a more dynamic learning device. Educational alternatives can be quickly selected to suit the student's capabilities, and performance can be monitored continuously. As instruction proceeds, data are gathered for monitoring and improving performance.
4. Audiovisual Techniques
Both television and film extend the range of skills that can be taught and the way information may be presented. Many systems have electronic blackboards and slide projection equipment. The use of techniques that combine audiovisual systems such as closed circuit television and telephones has spawned a new term for this type of training, teletraining. The feature on " Sesame Street " illustrates the design and evaluation of one of television's favorite children's program as a training device.
Training simulations replicate the essential characteristics of the real world that are necessary to produce both learning and the transfer of new knowledge and skills to application settings. Both machine and other forms of simulators exist. Machine simulators often have substantial degrees of. physical fidelity; that is, they represent the real world's operational equipment. The main purpose of simulation, however, is to produce psychological fidelity, that is, to reproduce in the training those processes that will be required on the job. We simulate for a number of reasons, including to control the training environment, for safety, to introduce feedback and other learning principles, and to reduce cost.
6. Business games
They are the direct progeny of war games that have been used to train officers in combat techniques for hundreds of years. Almost all early business games were designed to teach basic business skills, but more recent games also include interpersonal skills. Monopoly might be considered the quintessential business game for young capitalists. It is probably the first place youngsters learned the words mortgage, taxes, and go to jail.
Making Your Conference Or Seminar Fun: 5 Ideas to Liven Up the Party
Are you concerned that your child with a disability is not learning
academics at a grade and age level pace? Have you thought that your
child may benefit from a curriculum of functional skills? Would you
like to learn about a resource that can help you learn more about
functional curriculums for your child in special education? This
article will discuss functional skills, functional academics, why your
child with a disability needs them, and a resource for more
Functional skills are defined as skills that can be used everyday, in
different environments. Functional skills focus on different areas
such as home (cooking, cleaning etc) family, self help skills
(bathing, brushing teeth, dressing, grooming), employment, recreation,
community involvement, health, and functional academics. All students
with disabilities will benefit from functional skill training, to help
them in their adult life.
Functional academics are also important for children with
disabilities, who may not be able to learn age and grade appropriate
academics. Functional academics are defined as academic areas that
will be used by the student for the rest of their life. For example:
Reading (read signs; stop, go, mens, womens, read a recipe). Math
(money, grocery shopping, making change, budget). Health (grooming,
oral hygiene, plan healthy meals). A wonderful resource to learn more
about functional skills, and functional curriculums to help children
with special needs is the book entitled Functional Curriculum for
Elementary, Middle, and Secondary Age Students with Special Needs.
The book is Edited by Paul Wehman and John Kregal, and is a resource
that you will use again and again.
Your child with a disability needs functional skills because these
skills will have meaning for your child, and will help them be as
independent as possible, as an adult. For example: Every child eats,
and being able to cook or prepare simple foods will help them be more
independent. If children learn simple household chores, these skills
can be turned into job skills when they get older. For example: My
daughter Angelina, who has a severe disability, learned how to fold
towels when she was in elementary school. When Angelina entered high
school she had a job folding towels at the high school pool. Because
Angelina already had the functional skill of folding towels, the
transition to a job folding towels was pretty easy. Angelina also
learned that when she worked hard folding towels, she was paid. On pay
day, she was able to spend the money that she made at her job.
Learning functional skills that can be turned into work is critical
for all children with disabilities. They will gain pride by being able
to work, and will understand the connection between work and money.
By learning what functional skills are and why they are important,
will help your child as they grow into adulthood. Do not be afraid to
bring up functional skill training for your child, when you are
participating in IEP meetings. Your child is depending on you to help
them be a happy fulfilled adult!