Natural Health Education in the 21st Century
1.On-the-job Training and Lectures
The two most frequently used kinds of training are on-the-job training and lectures, although little research exists as to the effectiveness of either. It is usually impossible to teach someone everything she needs to know at a location away from the workplace. Thus on-the-job training often supplements other kinds of training, e.g., classroom or off-site training; but on-the-job training is frequently the only form of training. It is usually informal, which means, unfortunately, that the trainer does not concentrate on the training as much as she should, and the trainer may not have a well-articulated picture of what the novice needs to learn.
On-the-job training is not successful when used to avoid developing a training program, though it can be an effective part of a well-coordinated training program.
Lectures are used because of their low cost and their capacity to reach many people. Lectures, which use one-way communication as opposed to interactive learning techniques, are much criticized as a training device.
2. Programmed Instruction (PI)
These devices systematically present information to the learner and elicit a response; they use reinforcement principles to promote appropriate responses. When PI was originally developed in the 1950s, it was thought to be useful only for basic subjects. Today the method is used for skills as diverse as air traffic control, blueprint reading, and the analysis of tax returns.
3. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)
With CAI, students can learn at their own pace, as with PI. Because the student interacts with the computer, it is believed by many to be a more dynamic learning device. Educational alternatives can be quickly selected to suit the student's capabilities, and performance can be monitored continuously. As instruction proceeds, data are gathered for monitoring and improving performance.
4. Audiovisual Techniques
Both television and film extend the range of skills that can be taught and the way information may be presented. Many systems have electronic blackboards and slide projection equipment. The use of techniques that combine audiovisual systems such as closed circuit television and telephones has spawned a new term for this type of training, teletraining. The feature on " Sesame Street " illustrates the design and evaluation of one of television's favorite children's program as a training device.
Training simulations replicate the essential characteristics of the real world that are necessary to produce both learning and the transfer of new knowledge and skills to application settings. Both machine and other forms of simulators exist. Machine simulators often have substantial degrees of. physical fidelity; that is, they represent the real world's operational equipment. The main purpose of simulation, however, is to produce psychological fidelity, that is, to reproduce in the training those processes that will be required on the job. We simulate for a number of reasons, including to control the training environment, for safety, to introduce feedback and other learning principles, and to reduce cost.
6. Business games
They are the direct progeny of war games that have been used to train officers in combat techniques for hundreds of years. Almost all early business games were designed to teach basic business skills, but more recent games also include interpersonal skills. Monopoly might be considered the quintessential business game for young capitalists. It is probably the first place youngsters learned the words mortgage, taxes, and go to jail.
Difference Between On-Campus Education and Online Education
You have seen them on your favorite CSI TV show. They are the meticulous forensic document examiners who scrutinize paperwork such as forged money, ransom notes, and suspicious handwriting. Have you ever wondered what a forensic document examiner does and what the educational requirements are to become one?
In this article, I will explain what the job description of a forensic document examiner entails and what kind of educational training that candidates must undergo to be successful in this profession.
If you love reading magazines, books, and letters, the highly specialized job of a forensic document examiner may be the career for you. The job responsibilities of a forensic document examiner are to study documents and other handwritten and printed materials with a knack for determining their legitimacy, age, and authorship. A successful candidate must be able to have good eyesight, lots of patience, extreme attention to detail, and enough intestinal fortitude to work long hours by himself. You must have good language and grammar skills. You must know how to use a camera to take photographs of the documents you are studying. Finally, you must have working knowledge of current laboratory testing procedures.
To enter in this field, it is not required that you have specific educational training. However, you are expected to be board certified by the American Board of Forensic Document Examiners (ABFDE). You must meet their standards by earning any college degree and acquiring on-the-job experience in the field. If you have a college degree in chemistry, any other laboratory science, or forensic science, your education can be of great benefit to you. Chemical testing is at the heart of the job of a forensic document examiner.
To gain hands-on experience, you must seek employment in the questioned-documents laboratory where you can learn everything you need to know as an apprentice. Several federal law enforcement agencies such as the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (BATF); the CIA; U.S. Postal Inspection Service; U.S. Secret Service; IRS; and any of the branches of the military maintain a questioned-documents laboratory. Many state and local law enforcement agencies also have questioned-documents sections in their crime laboratories.
Experts such as forensic document examiners use many scientific procedures to help solve a crime. Their efforts help bring an offender to justice and bring closure to the families of the victims.